HAARP Transmissions May
Accidentally be Jamming Bees Homing Ability, June 1, 2007
By Guy Cramer
in the Summer of 2006, bee hives in more than half the U.S. States, Four
Canadian Provinces and a number of Countries in Europe have mysteriously been
losing billions of bees in what is now being termed Colony
Collapse Disorder, Canadian officials have yet to declare their bee losses are
due to this disorder. Essentially the mature worker bees leave the hive and do
not return leaving the Queen and immature workers unable to sustain the hive.
Due to the recent outbreak and distances involved in the regions affected most
researchers are unable to explain why this is occurring. Currently one theory
suggests the electromagnetic waves may be causing interference with bees’
navigation as previous small scale research showed that 70% of the bees did not
return to the hive when cordless phone transmitters placed within the colonies.
Here we show that a U.S. military radio transmitter (ionospheric
heater) array, the most powerful in the world, transitioned to full power in
2006 and reception of signals transmitted cover the same region as the Colony
Collapse Disorder. The High-frequency Active Auroral
Research Project is an antenna array located in
These past few months a
number of research groups confirmed that Bee Populations have dropped
dramatically within the past year in
The problem was first noted last summer; however, over half of all American states have reported CCD and only 40 percent of the commercial hives on the West Coast and 30 percent of the hives on the East Coast remain intact. The problem has also been confirmed in numerous European countries1,2 and Canadian bee keepers in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Ontario are also reporting suspicious losses in the bee populations but the Canadian Officials are not yet prepared to say it is due to CCD. 3
The theory has been put forward that Cellular Phones are to blame as a number of studies in Germany showed that 70% of bees will not return to a hive if a cellular phone is close to the hive, the initial article reporting the cellular phone connection incorrectly reported the study which actually place base stations from cordless phone sets into the colonies, cellular phones were not used in this study. This small scale study indicated that the electromagnetics from the mobile transmitters are interfering with the bee’s sensitive navigational ability.4
“Roughly a third of the
A couple of problems with this
cordless phone transmission / bee interference hypothesis: A) Why did this problem occur only within the past year as
cordless phones have been used for many years. B) Why has the CCD problem only
The cordless phone base
experiments that indicate interference with bees
ability to return to the hive is useful evidence but this in and of itself does
not prove their theory. However, we may be able to ascertain from this that
some mode of radio transmissions may be affecting the bees, but it would only
be transmissions which are located within
The HAARP complex (High-frequency Active Auroral Research Project) is a congressionally initiated
program jointly managed by the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy. HAARP is situated
within a 23-acre lot in a relatively isolated region near the town of
A few of the Military applications of HAARP as disclosed by the military include but are not limited to: submarine communication, long-range ground penetration radar and over the horizon radar.
In 1997 HAARP was used for transmission testing to see how far the signals would travel, this was long before the array was at full power, the results of amateur radio reception of the HAARP signal showed excellent reception down the west coast of British Columbia, Canada to California, the Midwest was weaker with Texas somewhat stronger than the Midwest due to “favorable propagation paths”. The East Coast received weak signals with patchy reception due to the signal having to travel through the auroral zone (this is the region we typically see the north lights or aurora at night time)
In Europe the signal was weak but enough to copy the Morse code due to reflection from ionosphere patches within the polar auroral circle, this allowed the people in Europe to get a better signal than those on the East coast of the U.S. Hawaii picked up one of the strongest receptions and New Zealand couldn’t get the signal as they were still in the sunlight and the conditions do not allow the signal to propagate into sunlight regions.
“The HAARP transmitter is limited to frequencies below 10 Mhz. Frequencies in this range are affected by absorption in the D layer of the ionosphere which disappears at night. Conversely, ionization in the reflective F layer would be expected to be high for several hours after sunset permitting skywave propagation (bouncing signals off high altitude ionosphere layers for long distance reception) at the 6.99 Mhz frequency.”
The test concluded that HAARP High Frequency transmissions can be detected in
HAARP transitioned just prior to the Summer of 2006 to full power from 960 kW (kilowatts) to 3.6 mW (megawatts) which is an increase of almost 4 times the output and the technology was moved from DARPA control to full joint U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force operation as of Fiscal Year 2006. 6
CCD by most accounts began in the summer of 2006, some reports suggest that it may have been occurring in a limited scale for the previous few years. This corresponds with HAARP going to full power in 2006 and transmitting at 27% power output prior to this.
Considering HAARP is not only used for High Frequency (HF) military and intelligence signal transmission but also Low Frequency (LF) and Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) transmission for Submarine communications and the ability for the array to heat a region of the ionosphere producing a denser region to bounce even higher frequency signals back to earth which would normally penetrate the ionosphere. Finding the precise cause for interference with bees’ navigational ability from the operational frequency spectrum of HAARP may be difficult.
There could also be another factor HAARP is also able to stimulate the ionosphere to trigger faint optical emissions at specific wavelengths to produce artificial airglow at high altitude. Initially these tests involved producing this airglow bubble above HAARP but they discovered with testing that they could direct the airglow to follow the magnetic lines of the Earth.7
These HAARP triggered airglow wavelengths fall within the range of Bee’s visual spectrum. Evidence suggests that bees probably use their wide visual spectrum to lock onto the sun to allow them to find their way back to the hive and communicate to other worker bees how to get to locations they just came from, it was thought that ultraviolet emissions from the sun were primary positioning system for the bees as it penetrates cloud cover. However, tests on bees many years ago Edrich, Neumeyer & von Helversen (1979) and van der Glas (1977) have shown that the longer Infrared wavelengths also influence the bees orientation. 8
The HAARP induced airglow falls within this same Infrared wavelength of 630 nm which can be detected by bees but it is not visible to the human eye. One reason for HAARP to trigger this high altitude airglow is for a one way communications system, the airglow can be influenced to pulse and the optical intensity differences can be deciphered by sensitive equipment, the delay is a few seconds so it takes awhile to send a message in this optical format. 9
Another experiment in the Netherlands testing greenhouse materials on bee orientation due to the changes of natural light frequencies passing through the material concluded that beneath the claddings with glass or polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) many bees returned to the hives whereas bees in a greenhouse with polycarbonate (PC) cladding rarely returned to the hive. 10 The evidence suggests the something in the PC varied the light passing through the material within the greenhouse which in turn disoriented the bees.
Scale CCD began in the summer of 2006, HAARP went to
full power in the summer of 2006. Initial research shows bees are sensitive to electromagnetics and/or specific frequencies outside of the
visual spectrum, HAARP transmits over a broad range of
frequencies. Bees are sensitive to changes in the visual spectrum. HAARP can
induce changes in the same visual spectrum that bees utilize. CCD is taking
place in a limited regional locations of North American and
While we cannot determine if it is a particular radio frequency, optical transmission, optical frequency or electromagnetic signal associated with the HAARP transmissions which may be interfering with the bees at this point, the evidence is suggestive of further required research to narrow down potential interference frequencies and phenomena.
HONEY BEE DIE-OFF ALARMS
BEEKEEPERS, CROP GROWERS AND RESEARCHERS,
The mysterious deaths
of the honeybees
Apiarists buzzing about soaring rate of honeybee deaths
Cellphone researchers claim data
The local buzz:
Beekeepers across North of
6) RDT&E BUDGET ITEM JUSTIFICATION SHEET (R-2 Exhibit) unclassified, February 2006
Laboratory; The High Frequency Active Auroral
8) SKYLIGHT POLARIZATION PATTERNS AND ANIMAL
ORIENTATION BY MICHAEL L. BRINES The
9) E-Mail to HAARP http://www.haarp.alaska.edu/haarp/ltr/ltr5.html
10) Bee orientation under new energy saving greenhouse claddings On-line version, last update 20 January 2007, Tjeerd Blacquière, Bram Cornelissen , Jeroen Donders PPO Bee Unit, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen,The Netherlands P.10 http://www.eurbee.org/Files/Sbornik%20EurBee%20pro%20web250107.doc
In Part 1 I showed the correlation between Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) and the transition to full power of the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Project (HAARP) in 2006.
In Part 2 I will review previous research which goes in-depth on a number of past studies on the effects of electromagnetic interference on bees and I will also review key areas the patent HAARP is based upon. This background should provide further support of the findings that CCD may be directly related to increased HAARP activity.
In August 2002 the following release was issued: Russian parliament concerned about US plans to develop new weapon
[FBIS Transcribed Text]
"Under the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP), the
"The significance of this qualitative leap could be compared to the transition from cold steel to fire arms, or from conventional weapons to nuclear weapons. This new type of weapons differs from previous types in that the near-Earth medium becomes at once an object of direct influence and its component.
These conclusions were made by the commission of the State Duma's international affairs and defense committees, the statement reads.
The committees reported that the
"When these facilities are launched into space from
The U.S. plans to carry out large-scale scientific experiments, under the HAARP program, and not controlled by the global community, will create weapons capable of breaking radio communication lines and equipment installed on spaceships and rockets, provoke serious accidents in electricity networks and in oil and gas pipelines and have a negative impact on the mental health of people populating entire regions, the deputies said.
They demanded that an international ban be put on such large-scale geophysical experiments.
The appeal, signed by 90 deputies, has been sent to President Vladimir Putin, to the United Nations and other international organizations, to the parliaments and leaders of the UN member countries, to the scientific public and to mass media outlets.
Among those who signed the appeal are Tatyana Astrakhankina, Nikolai Kharitonov, Yegor Ligachev, Sergei Reshulsky, Vitaly Sevastyanov, Viktor Cherepkov, Valentin Zorkaltsev and Alexei Mitrofanov.1
I've pulled out a few paragraphs below from the patent; If HAARP can disrupt communications in the atmosphere, on the surface and sea communication (both surface and subsurface) and be able to disrupt the guidance systems of the most sophisticated aircraft and missiles. It is not a stretch to connect it to disruption of bee guidance.
"Likewise, if the density N.sub.e is on the order of 10.sup.8, a properly positioned
plume will provide a reflecting surface for VHF waves and can be used to
enhance, interfere with, or otherwise modify
communication transmissions. It can be seen from the foregoing that by
appropriate application of various aspects of this invention at strategic
locations and with adequate power sources, a means and method is provided to
cause interference with or even total disruption of communications over a very
large portion of the earth. This
invention could be employed to disrupt not only land based communications, both
civilian and military, but also airborne communications and sea communications
(both surface and subsurface). This would have significant military
implications, particularly as a barrier to or confusing factor for hostile
missiles or airplanes. The belt or belts of enhanced ionization
produced by the method and apparatus of this invention, particularly if set up
..."a substantial amount of randomly modulated signals of very large power magnitude can be generated in a highly nonlinear mode. This can cause confusion of or interference with or even complete disruption of guidance systems employed by even the most sophisticated of airplanes and missiles. The ability to employ and transmit over very wide areas of the earth a plurality of electromagnetic waves of varying frequencies and to change same at will in a random manner, provides a unique ability to interfere with all modes of communications, land, sea, and/or air, at the same time. Because of the unique juxtaposition of usable fuel source at the point where desirable field lines intersect the earth's surface, such wide ranging and complete communication interference can be achieved in a resonably short period of time. Because of the mirroring phenomenon discussed hereinabove, it can also be prolonged for substantial time periods so that it would not be a mere transient effect that could simply be waited out by an opposing force. Thus, this invention provides the ability to put unprecedented amounts of power in the earth's atmosphere at strategic locations and to maintain the power injection level, particularly if random pulsing is employed, in a manner far more precise and better controlled than heretofore accomplished by the prior art,"...
This paragraph is his future use observation at the end of the patent (lifting the atmosphere will have direct influence on surface ion ratios):
This invention has a phenomenal variety of possible ramifications and potential future developments. As alluded to earlier, missile or aircraft destruction, deflection, or confusion could result, particularly when relativistic particles are employed. Also, large regions of the atmosphere could be lifted to an unexpectedly high altitude so that missiles encounter unexpected and unplanned drag forces with resultant destruction or deflection of same. Weather modification is possible by, for example, altering upper atmosphere wind patterns or altering solar absorption patterns by constructing one or more plumes of atmospheric particles which will act as a lens or focusing device. Also as alluded to earlier, molecular modifications of the atmosphere can take place so that positive environmental effects can be achieved. Besides actually changing the molecular composition of an atmospheric region, a particular molecule or molecules can be chosen for increased presence. For example, ozone, nitrogen, etc. concentrations in the atmosphere could be artificially increased. Similarly, environmental enhancement could be achieved by causing the breakup of various chemical entities such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxides, and the like. Transportation of entities can also be realized when advantage is taken of the drag effects caused by regions of the atmosphere moving up along diverging field lines. Small micron sized particles can be then transported, and, under certain circumstances and with the availability of sufficient energy, larger particles or objects could be similarly affected. Particles with desired characteristics such as tackiness, reflectivity, absorptivity, etc., can be transported for specific purposes or effects. For example, a plume of tacky particles could be established to increase the drag on a missile or satellite passing therethrough. Even plumes of plasma having substantially less charged particle density than described above will produce drag effects on missiles which will affect a lightweight (dummy) missile in a manner substantially different than a heavy (live) missile and this affect can be used to distinguish between the two types of missiles. A moving plume could also serve as a means for supplying a space station or for focusing vast amount of sunlight on selected portions of the earth. Surveys of global scope could also be realized because the earth's natural magnetic field could be significantly altered in a controlled manner by plasma beta effects resulting in, for example, improved magnetotelluric surveys. Electromagnetic pulse defenses are also possible. The earth's magnetic field could be decreased or disrupted at appropriate altitudes to modify or eliminate the magnetic field in high Compton electron generation (e.g., from high altitude nuclear bursts) regions. High intensity, well controlled electrical fields can be provided in selected locations for various purposes. For example, the plasma sheath surrounding a missile or satellite could be used as a trigger for activating such a high intensity field to destroy the missile or satellite. Further, irregularities can be created in the ionosphere which will interfere with the normal operation of various types of radar, e.g., synthetic aperture radar. The present invention can also be used to create artificial belts of trapped particles which in turn can be studied to determine the stability of such parties. Still further, plumes in accordance with the present invention can be formed to simulate and/or perform the same functions as performed by the detonation of a "heave" type nuclear device without actually having to detonate such a device. Thus it can be seen that the ramifications are numerous, far-reaching, and exceedingly varied in usefulness.2
Confirmation that recommendations from this Eastlund patent have been attempted can be found in the HAARP BIBLIOGRAPHY 1990-2005 which chronicles many of the research programs conducted with HAARP during that period3
In regards to research studies on bees, it has been determined that they are highly sensitivity to electromagnetic interference - the following excerpts have been compiled with links to many of these studies within the references:
"...when proof was obtained that bees and other insects in electric fields show changes in behavior and metabolism, the electrostatic charges on them acquired a new significance."
…the perception of electric fields and also intra-specific communication of social insects, and for “weather sensitivity” and orientation.
…Electrical fields in the atmosphere, electromagnetic oscillations and atmospheric ions have become established as meteorologically correlated factors in the insects’ habitat…
"The body surface of a bee can be divided roughly into two areas as far as its electrical behavior is concerned. All the membranous and glandular surfaces of the cuticula show great variations in potential, whereas the rest of the surface is at a low potential, up to +1 v. Over fairly short distances, there may be fairly high intensities of electric field, 25v/0-2cm. These measurements show certain peculiarities:
(a) Static potentials can be measured only from the antennae; elsewhere on the body there is an effect analogous to the discharge of a condenser.
(b) A bee is able to change the polarity of an antenna, completely or partly, in less than a second. The change usually occurs just before take-off, suggesting perhaps that this change of polarity has some function in orientation...
(c) The bee is insulated electrically from any underlying surface by the claw of its tarsi, but it can make electric contact with the surface by means of the electrolyte secreted from the arolium. According to the sign and magnitude of the potential of the underlying surface, the bee then becomes either charged or discharged.
Every colony as a whole shows a level of charge which is characteristic of it, depending on the strength and the amounts of brood and honey in it,...Beyond a (measurable) distance from the entrance, the electrical influence of the colony ceases. On days when a colony has a negative potential, positively charged bees returning to it change their potential from positive through zero to a negative value during flight. On other days (when its potential is positive) those bees that have a small positive potential increase this more and more as they approach the colony.
It is possible to record the arrival or departure of an individual bee, within a suitable distance of the hive entrance, by recording the change in the potential of the colony with a sufficiently sensitive instrument.
Bees in a strong electric field became aggressive, stinging each other to death; communication was disturbed. At still higher fields, the bees tore out the brood from the cells, and no new brood was produced. The bees left their hive if they could,...
Colonies subjected to electromagnetic oscillations (10-30 kHz, 800 v/m) produce a changed pattern of sounds and their temperature increases. Given a choice bees will evade such oscillations.
Increase concentration of atmospheric ions increases the motor activity and also affects the water balance of the bees. Extensive electric screening of bees by a Faraday cage reduces general activity and results in pathological loading of the rectum.
If the ion concentration of the air is high, peak discharge currents of about 10 x 108 A may occur at the antenna; these are sufficiently high to produce physiological excitement.
Some types of behavior can be correlated with atmospheric electrical factors. The level of electrical potential affects the ability of bees to imbibe food. It also affects the onset and course of the flight of young bees from the hive and also aggressivity. The fact that the bees ability to return to their home or hive varies from time to time can be attributed to atmospheric disturbances (electromagnetic oscillations in the long-wavelength range).
Changes in weather and cloud formation are associated with changes in electric potential, which produce local changes of charge both in the individual bee and in the colony, and this could account for the bees 'recognition' of the dynamics course of weather changes. Corona discharge due to high atmospheric field intensities (for example from the tips of grasses and leaves) must also be taken into account: they might produce a UV pattern visible to the bees which, being unstable in time, could confuse their orientation."4
Tethered honey bees (Apidea Apis melifera) coaxed to fly in a miniature wind tunnel for a specific time interval, adsorb a virus (i.e., bacteriophage MS2) aerosol at a linear rate of 1% of the aerosol concentration for every 6.73 pC of electrostatic charge on the bee.5
Bees have a magnetoreception system sensitive down to 26nT at 10 to 60Hz and are more sensitive to lower frequencies.6
Magnetic field (MF) bursts at a frequency of 250 Hz oriented parallel to the field-lines of the EMF induce unequivocaljumpsof misdirection of up to +10°.7
Honey bees can be influenced non-thermally in three ways:
First of all, the bee itself is a creature with a strictly defined shape. So this shape can be resonantly stimulated, when the wave-length - and so the frequency - of the radiation is in the range of the size of the bee, As the honey bees' size is circa two centimeters, the frequency of the resonance has to be up to 15 GHz. But Honey bees can not only be resonantly stimulated by this strict frequency. Because their body is extensive, can can be stimulated by a broadband of frequencies, which borders have to be discovered experimentally. ... 9
In an experiment with exposing bee colonies to cordless phone base stations compared to a control group of non-exposed colonies, in monitoring their return times to the hive: "At no time of the experiment more than six exposed bees arrived, several times none came back to the hive within 45 minutes, whereas at every sequence of the experiment returning non-exposed honey bees could be observed."10
Conclusion: The combined research on electrical interference on the colonies and individual bee's while not exhaustive indicates that changes even in one of the various fields; such as ionization, ion polarity, UV corona discharge, magnetic field, low frequency interference or high frequency resonance can have profound effects on an insect that is A) dependent on the colony for survival and B) must move in a x-y-z axis to not only find food but also be able to navigate back to the same colony, a disorientation of a few degrees horizontally or vertically can cause the returning bee to misalign, unlikely to find the colony. This reminds me of aircraft trying to find an aircraft carrier with only a general idea of the location, except in the case of the aircraft pilot's they know the ship will be at sea level whereas a bee colony can be located 30 feet up in a tree so the z axis orientation also becomes critical. If HAARP is influencing one or more of these required fields - which both the patent and research seems to indicate - then it may not only be disorienting the bees' but also making them more vulnerable to viruses and infection which is showing up in those bees that remain at the hives which collapse.
I recommend that all ionospheric heater arrays around the world be turned completely off for 6-12 months to see if the colonies continue to collapse. This will determine if the connection between CCD and HAARP and other related arrays around the world is valid. This is one of the few cases where an off switch can be flipped to determine a possible cause and effect relationship over such a wide area.
1) Russian parliament concerned about US plans to develop new weapon http://www.fas.org/irp/program/collect/haarp-duma.htm
3) HAARP BIBLIOGRAPHY 1990-2005 http://www.gi.alaska.edu/services/library/haarpbibliography.html
4) Effect of Electrical Charges on Honeybees, By Ulrich Warnke, Bee World, Vol. 57, No. 2 1976 http://www.hese-project.org/hese-uk/en/papers/warnke_bee_world_76.pdf
5) Flying honey bees adsorb airborne viruses http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/klu/aero/2005/00000021/00000002/00004185?crawler=true
6) Measurement of the threshold sensitivity of honeybees to weak, extremely low-frequency magnetic fields, Kirschvink J, Padmanabha S, Boyce C, Oglesby J. 1: J Exp Biol. 1997;200(Pt 9):1363-8. http://jeb.biologists.org/cgi/reprint/200/9/1363
7) Bursts of magnetic fields induce jumps of misdirection in bees by a mechanism of magnetic resonance http://www.springerlink.com/content/v6406173767q7445/
8) Magnetic field effects on activity and ageing in honeybees http://www.springerlink.com/content/w47v20v257pq8076/
9) How Electromagnetic Exposure can influence Learning Processes (of bees) http://www.bienenarchiv.de/forschung/2004_lernprozesse/Electromagnetic%20Exposure_Learning%20Processes.doc.pdf
10) Can Electromagnetic Exposure Cause a Change in Behaviour? http://www.hese-project.org/hese-uk/en/papers/icrw_kuhn_landau_study.pdf
Guy Cramer is the President/CEO of HyperStealth Biotechnology Corp, President of United Dynamics Corp., inventor of the Passive Negative Ion Generator, and the developer of the SuperForce.com algorithm. Guy has worked with and/or corresponded on projects with, the Edmonton Oilers National Hockey League team, NASA JPL, NASA Headquarters, Columbia Accident Investigation Board, U.S. Marine Corps, U.S. Army and Senator John Warner's office (Chairman of the Armed Services Committee) prior to his retirement a few months ago. Mr. Cramer is also the grandson and former research assistant of Donald L. Hings, P.Eng, M.B.E., C.M. (Geophysicist), the developer of the first true Walkie-Talkie in 1937 who later refined the device into the "Radio Frequency System" for the Canadian Military 1942; this earned him the prestigious Member of British Empire Award, and The Order of Canada. Don Hings and Guy Cramer authored an academic paper on greenhouse gasses for the head of the United Nations Environmental Program in 1990.
In 1993 Guy discovered that the Russian's had secretly been using negative ion generators to train their top athletes; vastly improving balance, endurance and reaction time over normal levels, the Olympic committee did not object to these Russian method's. With Cramer's 1999 invention of the Passive Negative Ion Generator - he had developed a safe negative ion emission personal device with no power source which provides similar advantages to the expensive Russian system at little cost - currently he has combined the device into the collar of combat uniforms which use his fractal camouflage patterns.
In the 1997 Cramer spearheaded a group to disprove the Bible Codes with a statistical formula developed by Cramer. Many of the leading mathematicians were convinced these codes were mathematically significant until Cramer's group proved that they were common, random codes.
In 1997 one of Cramer's papers was reviewed by world renown Professor Stephen Hawking.
In 2003 Guy was
commissioned by King Abdullah II of
In 2003 Cramer submitted special confidential information to the head of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board regarding highly charged ion propagation in the atmosphere during a previous Shuttle landing. In 2004-2005 Cramer corresponded with Frederick Gregory, Deputy Administrator of NASA, regarding safety concerns for the launch and landing of the Space Shuttle Discovery and increased geomagnetic disturbances. It appears that Cramer’s recommendations to avoid a landing trajectory over the continental United States, where high altitude ionosphere lightning had a much greater potential, were heeded, as the landing site and alternative landing sites NASA selected took place over the most minimal land areas available within the variable orbit trajectories to use. This decision was unprecedented in previous Shuttle landings. Cramer’s research combined with new NASA research concluded that high altitude positive lightning, which the shuttle is not protected against, is not as rare as NASA had suspected and it is predominant over land and rare over the ocean.
In 2004, a visual mitigation study
was spearheaded by the U.S. Department of the Interior's (DOI) Bureau of Land
Management (BLM). This is the most comprehensive infrastructure
concealment program since World War II using specially designed "Fractal
Based" camouflage patterns in projects related to concealment of critical
infrastructure. It produced remarkable results. The design team of
Dr. O'Neill, and Mr. Guy Cramer continues to achieve
desired objectives as the study nears publication and implementation across
DOI/BLM administered lands within the
Cramer is now developing a method
with Dr. O’Neill to place complex digital camouflage patterns onto supersonic
aircraft as a labor efficient and cost effective system
while also combining new IR and Thermal signature reduction paint into the
application. In 2006 the country of
This material is Copyright © 2007, by
Guy Cramer, All Rights Reserved.
This material cannot be reproduced in any form without the expressed written permission of the Author. Whole Copies may be printed for personal use; no changes are to be made to the content, names or references.