Atmospheric Geoengineering is occuring in our skies daily, and on a worldwide basis
For those who doubt the feasibility of these special operations, just take a look at the following Patents.
Method and apparatus for altering a region in
the earth's atmosphere, ionosphere, and/or magnetosphere
United States Patent 4,686,605 / Eastlund / August 11, 1987
A method and apparatus for altering at least one selected region which normally exists above the earth's surface. The region is excited by electron cyclotron resonance heating to thereby increase its charged particle density. In one embodiment, circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation is transmitted upward in a direction substantially parallel to and along a field line which extends through the region of plasma to be altered. The radiation is transmitted at a frequency which excites electron cyclotron resonance to heat and accelerate the charged particles. This increase in energy can cause ionization of neutral particles which are then absorbed as part of the region thereby increasing the charged particle density of the region.
Method of modifying weather
United States Patent 6,315,213 / Cordani / November 13, 2001
A method for artificially modifying the weather by seeding rain clouds of a storm with suitable cross-linked aqueous polymer. The polymer is dispersed into the cloud and the wind of the storm agitates the mixture causing the polymer to absorb the rain. This reaction forms a gelatinous substance which precipitate to the surface below. Thus, diminishing the clouds ability to rain.
Process for absorbing ultraviolet radiation
using dispersed melanin
United States Patent / 5,286,979 / Berliner / February 15, 1994
This invention is a process for absorbing ultraviolet radiation in the atmosphere by dispersing melanin, its analogs, or derivatives into the atmosphere. By appropriate choice of melanin composition, size of melanin dispersoids, and their concentration, the melanin will absorb some quantity of ultraviolet radiation and thereby lessen its overall effect on the critters who would normally absorb such radiation.
Liquid atomizing apparatus for aerial spraying
United States Patent / 4,948,050 / Picot / August 14, 1990
A rotary liquid spray atomizer for aerial spraying is driven by a variable speed motor, driven in turn by power from a variable speed AC generator. The generator is driven from a power take-off from the engine of the spraying aircraft, a drive assembly includes a device for controlling the speed of the generator relative to the speed of the engine. The particularly convenient drive assembly between the generator and the power take-off is a hydraulic motor, which drives the generator, driven by a hydraulic pump driven from the power take-off. The speed of the hydraulic motor can be controllably varied. Conveniently the AC motor is a synchronous motor.
Laminar microjet atomizer and method of aerial
spraying of liquids
United States Patent / 4,412,654 Yates / November 1, 1983
A laminar microjet atomizer and method of aerial spraying involve the use of a streamlined body having a slot in the trailing edge thereof to afford a quiescent zone within the wing and into which liquid for spraying is introduced. The liquid flows from a source through a small diameter orifice having a discharge end disposed in the quiet zone well upstream of the trailing edge. The liquid released into the quiet zone in the slot forms drops characteristic of laminar flow. Those drops then flow from the slot at the trailing edge of the streamlined body and discharge into the slipstream for free distribution.
ROCKET HAVING BARIUM RELEASE SYSTEM TO CREATE
ION CLOUDS IN THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE
United States Patent: - US3813875 / Issued/Filed Dates: June 4, 1974 / April 28, 1972
A chemical system for releasing a good yield of free barium (Ba°) atoms and barium ions (BA+) to create ion clouds in the upper atmosphere and interplanetary space for the study of the geophysical properties of the medium. Inventor(s): Paine; Thomas O. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration with respect to an invention of , Hampton, VA 23364
NASA: BARIUM - Chemical
This is the "Description of Preferred Embodiments" link in the NASA Barium Patent listed above. Astounding that this information was generated in l969 and now,30 years later, there is evidence of Barium saturation in our atmosphere.
The Barium/Fuel mixtures are listed below along
with the suppliers.
Description of Preferred Embodiments:
Referring now to the drawings and more particularly to FIG. 1, there is shown a segment of a suitable carrier vehicle 10, such for example a rocket motor. Vehicle 10 is employed to carry fuel tank 11, insulated oxidizer tank 13 and combustion chamber 15, along with the necessary instrumentation, from earth into the upper atmosphere or into interplanetary space. Fuel tank 11 is in fluid connection with combustion chamber 15 and oxidizer tank 13 is in fluid connection with combustion chamber 15 by way of respective conduits 17 and 19. A pair of valves 21 and 23 are disposed within the respective conduits 17 and 19. Valves 21 and 23 are adapted to be selectively and simultaneously opened by a suitable battery-powered timing mechanism, radio signal, or the like, to release the pressurized fuel and oxidizer from tanks 11 and 13. The fuel and oxidizer then flow through conduits 17 and 19 and impinge upon each other through a centrally positioned manifold and suitable jets (not shown) in combustion chamber 15 where spontaneous ignition occurs. The reaction products are then expelled through the open ends of combustion chamber 15 as plasma which includes the desired barium neutral atoms and barium ions as individual species.
The fuel utilized in fuel tank 11 is either
hydrazine (N2 H4) or liquid ammonia (NH3) while the oxidizer employed is
selected from the group consisting of liquid fluorine (F2), chlorine trifluoride
(ClF3) and oxygen difluoride (OF2). When using hydrazine as the fuel, barium may
be dissolved therein as barium chloride, BaCl2, or barium nitrate, Ba(NO3)2, or
a combination of the two. When using liquid ammonia as the fuel, barium metal
may be dissolved therein. The combination found to produce the highest intensity
of Ba° and Ba+ resonance radiation in ground based tests involved a fuel of 16
percent Ba(NO3)2, 17 percent BaCl2 and 67 percent N2 H4 ; and as the oxidizer,
the cryogenic liquid fluorine F2 and in which an oxidizer to fuel weight ratio
Other combinations of ingredients tested are set forth in Table I below:
System Optimum O/F Percent
16.7% BaCl2 -
83.3% N2 H4 /ClF3
26% BaCl2 -
74% N2 H4 /ClF3
50% Ba(NO3)2 -
50% NH3 /ClF3
42.9% Ba(NO3)2 -
57.1% N2 H4 /ClF3
16.7% BaCl2 -
83.3% N2 H4 /F2
26% BaCl2 -
74% N2 H4 /F2
21% BaCl2 -
9% Ba(NO3)2 -
70% N2 H4 /F2
17% BaCl2 -
16% Ba(NO3)2 -
67% N2 H4 /F2
13% BaCl2 -
21.5% Ba(NO3)2 -
65.5% N2 H4 /F2
9% BaCl2 -
30% Ba(NO3)2 -
61% N2 H4 /F2
42.9% Ba(NO3)2 -
57.1% N2 H4 /F2
42.9% Ba(NO3)2 -
57.1% N2 H4 /OF2
26% BaCL2 -
74% N2 H4 /OF2
The conditions under which each of the combinations listed in Table I were tested were ambient and the percentage ionization was calculated by equations set forth in NASA Contract Report CR-1415 published in August 1969.
The chemical supplier and manufacturers stated purity for the various chemicals employed are set forth in Table II below:
Olin Mathieson Chemical
Company, Lake Charles,
97-98% N2 H4
Louisiana (2-3% H2 O)
Air Products and Chemicals
J. T. Baker & Co. Reagent Grade
J. T. Baker & Co. Reagent Grade
F2 Air Products &
Allied Chemical Co.
Baton Rouge, La.
Allied Chemical Co.
Baton Rouge, La.
A solubility study of various mixtures containing
Ba(NO3)2, BaCl2 and N2 H4 was made at room temperature and is shown in the
triangular plot of FIG. 2. Seven solutions that were used in the tests
enumerated in Table I are indicated by reference letters in FIG. 2 as follows:
a. 16.7% BaCl2 - 83.3% N2 H4
b. 26% BaCl2 - 74% N2 H4
c. 21% BaCl2 - 9% Ba(NO3)2 - 70% N2 H4
d. 17% BaCl2 - 16% Ba(NO3)2 - 67% N2 H4
e. 13% BaCl2 -21.5% Ba(NO3)2 -65.5% N2 H4
f. 9% BaCl2 - 30% Ba(NO3)2 - 61% N2 H4
g. 42.9% Ba(NO3)2 - 57.1% N2 H4
A mixture below the Saturation Line, that is
toward the Ba(NO3)2 or BaCl2 corners contained a solid and a solution phase
whereas the salts were in complete solution above the saturation line.
All fuel mixtures or systems described were easily handled except the 50 percent Ba(NO3)2 -50 percent NH3 system. This system caused clogging of the feed valves due to precipitation of the Ba(NO3)2. In addition the light values obtained using this system was relatively low.
In testing of each of the fuel mixtures set forth in Table I the Ba° light was greater than the Ba+ light for a given oxidizer/fuel ratio in each of the mixtures. The maximum light occurred in all systems at a point located between the stoichiometric O/F and 3 percent less than the stoichiometric O/F. The stoichiometric O/F is defined as being equivalent to the oxidizer to fuel weight ratio in a balanced equation assuming the salt is converted to free Ba, F to HF, Cl to HCl and O to H2 O. For example, one system tested had an O/F ratio of 142 grams oxidizer per 100 grams fuel or 1.42/1.00. If the barium is assumed to be converted to BaF2 then the stoichiometric O/F is 1.47. Since the greatest light output in all cases occurred with O/F less than stoichiometric it is apparent that little of the Ba was combined as BaF2 or BaCl2. This was confirmed by spectrographic analysis.
In Table II the various systems are listed in decreasing light output or relative light intensity as measured by phototubes in millivolts, thereby indicating the relative barium yield.
SYSTEM MAXIMUM RELATIVE
(percent weight for fuel)
Ba° 5535 A
Ba+ 4554 A
17% BaCl2 -16% Ba(NO3)2 -67% N2 H4 /F2
13% BaCl2 -21.5% Ba(NO3)2 -65.5% N2 H4 /F2
21% BaCl2 -9% Ba(NO3)2 -70% N2 H4 /F2
9% BaCl2 -30% Ba(NO3)2 -61% N2 H4 /F2
26% BaCl2 -74% N2 H4 /F2
26% BaCl2 -74% N2 H4 /OF2
16.7% BaCl2 -83.3% N2 H4 /F2
42.9% Ba(NO3)2 -57.1% N2 H4 /F2
42.9% Ba(NO3)2 -57.1% N2 H4 /OF2
42.9% Ba(NO3)2 -57.1% N2 H4 /ClF3
50% Ba(NO3)2 -50% NH3 /ClF3
From the above information, it is readily seen
that the 17 percent BaCl2 -16 percent Ba(NO3)2 -67 percent N2 H4 /F2 system gave
the greatest amount of light intensity of the 4554 A Ba+ and 5535 A Ba° spectral
lines. Ambient tests showed that the optimum oxidizer to fuel ratio of this
system was 1.32 to 1.00. This system containing 8.52 weight percent barium was
estimated to be 68.1 percent ionized. Also since this system had the largest
relative light intensity it would be expected to give the greatest amount of Ba°
and Ba+ and would appear to be the optimum system for a barium payload. In all
systems tested it was found that the relative light reached a maximum at the O/F
corresponding to the stoichiometric equation yielding barium as one of the
reaction products and that the relative light output was sensitive to the O/F.
Moving to either side of the optimum O/F caused a sharp decrease in relative
In vacuum tests the ignition of each system tested was smooth and like the ambient tests, took place in the combustion chamber. The rapid expansion in vacuum caused a decreased atom and ion density in the luminous flame which caused the light intensity to be about 1/37 to 1/50 the intensity measured in ambient tests. The percentage ionization was approximately the same for vacuum and ambient tests.
The operation of the invention is now believed apparent. Initially, fuel tank 11 is charged with the fuel containing the desired quantity of dissolved barium salt and pressurized with helium. The fuel tank pressure may be in the range of 6.89 to 20.06 ¥ 105 Newton/meter2. Oxidizer tank 13 is also charged with the appropriate oxidizer and pressurized. Cryogenic oxidizers such as OF2 and F2 are condensed from gases in the closed oxidizer tank which must be maintained enclosed in a liquid nitrogen bath. The oxidizer feed valve 23 and conduit 19 must also be maintained at liquid nitrogen temperature with a liquid nitrogen jacket when employing a cryogenic oxidizer.
The noncryogenic oxidizer, ClF3, may be pressurized into the closed oxidizer tank 13 from a supply bottle with super dry nitrogen.
Combustion chamber 15 is formed of stainless steel, aluminum, or the like F2 compatible metals and is internally partitioned by the manifold, not shown. The conduits 17 and 19 terminate in a manifold having injector orifices (not shown) mounted 90° to each other within each end of chamber 15 and sized for pressure drops of 5.24 to 10.2 ¥ 105 Newton/meter2 across the orifice. Fuel and oxidizer flows are in the range of 2.05 to 6.82 Kg/sec each. The entire system is carried into the upper atmosphere or interplanetary space by rocket vehicle 10 where, in response to a suitable signal, timing mechanism or the like, valves 21 and 23 may be selectively opened and closed and the pressurized liquid fuel and oxidizer will flow through conduits 17 and 19 into combination unit 15. When the hypergolic liquids impinge upon each other, they spontaneously ignite to expel reaction product gases or plasma including the highly luminous barium neutral atoms and barium ions as individual species. All of the barium reaching the combustion chamber is vaporized and released through the opposite ends thereof so that a high yield efficiency is obtained. The resulting high flame temperature, approximately 4,000°K., and some as yet not determined chemical activation, produces a relatively large amount of barium ions in the flame which is a highly desirable condition. It has been estimated from spectroscopic measurements that the degree of ionization may be as high as 75 percent in the released plasma in comparison to being on the order of 1 percent for the previously used Ba-CuO solid system which depends almost entirely on solar photoionization, a time-dependent phenomena which further reduces the usable barium yield of this known system.
Thus, it is readily apparent that the present invention provides an inherently more efficient process of producing barium clouds wherein the degree of ionization in the released plasma is much greater. The selectively opening and closing of valves 21 and 23 gives the possibility of a payload with multiple releases permitted due to the start and stop capabilities of the liquid system. Also, the liquid system of the present invention gives the possibility of controlling rates so that a trailtype release can be obtained as well as a point-source type. In addition, the liquid system of the present invention effects the formation of barium atoms and ions at the time of combustion and expansion at high temperatures and results in little opportunity for the barium to condense during release.
There are obviously many variations and modifications to the present invention that will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit or scope of the disclosure or from the scope of the claims.