Aerosol Operation Crimes & Cover Up
BARIUM TESTS ARE POSITIVE
Clifford E Carnicom
Santa Fe, New Mexico
May 19 2004
A series of qualitative chemical tests and deductions now confirm without doubt
the presence of significant amounts of barium within atmospheric samples.
Citizens may now begin the process of collecting the sample materials for formal
submission to public environmental agencies and private labs for identification.
The testing process can be done at modest expense and the results from
laboratory analysis can now be qualitatively and independently verified without
great difficulty. Any testing service employed will need to be able to
demonstrate no vested interest in the outcome of the results, accuracy of
method, and the willingness to have the testing process independently monitored.
The material under analysis has been collected by a plate ionizing filter; it
may also be collected with conventional fiber filtration over a longer period of
time. HEPA filter collection and subsequent electrolysis of the filter material
placed in distilled water has also proven successful. Extended time periods may
be required to collect a sufficient volume of material for electrolytic
processing and external testing preferences. Readers are referred to previous
articles1,2 for two methods of collection. The use of electrolysis is
significant in producing a final compound for testing purposes. The solid
materials (powder/ crystals) collected by the plate ionizing filter, assuming
they satisify the test procedures described on this page, will be sufficient for
laboratory analysis. Qualitative chemical tests and flame tests positively
establish the significant presence of barium compounds within the atmospheric
Citizens with sufficient environmental concern are encouraged to begin this
process of sample collection and identification, along with the documentation of
the responses of both public and private environmental services.
The process of collection and analysis is summarized as follows:
1. Solid materials are collected with the use of a plate ionizing filter or
fiber based filters as described previously.1,2
2. The material can be subjected to low power microscopic viewing to verify
similiarity of material form before proceeding. The powder/crystal material
under collection has a tan, beige or gray cast to it. The presence of fibrous
materials within the sample is not the focus of this report, and further
analysis of those materials may occur at a later time.
3. The solid powder/crystal material that is the subject of this report will be
found to dissolve easily within distilled water. Extremely small samples have
been used for all tests as the material requires time and effort to collect in
sufficient quantity. For testing purposes, samples of a fraction of a gram have
been dissolved within a few milliliters of distilled water.
4. Solutions of higher concentrations, e.g., 1 part solid to 3 parts water will
be found to be strongly alkaline. This indicates the presence of a base and
hydroxide ions. A pH value of 9 was recorded in the test that is the subject of
5. A weak solution (fraction of a gram to 40ml water) will be found to permit
significant electrolysis reactions. A variety of electrodes have been used to
verify the chemical results, including aluminum, iron, copper, silver and
graphite electrodes. The work at this point establishes the presence of a
soluble metallic hydroxide form in solution.
6. Chromatography experiments and comparative analysis allows us to conclude
that the atomic mass of the metallic cation under examination is greater than
that of copper, or greater than 63.5 atomic mass units.3 Cations under
reasonable consideration4 therefore include:
Ag+, Au+2, Ba+2, Bi+3, Cd+2, Ce+4, Cs+, Ga+3, Hg+2, Pb+2, Rb+, Sb+3, Sn+2, Sr+2
7. The results of electrolysis with graphite electrodes permits us to conclude
that a reactive metal is a component5 of the metallic hydroxide under
8. The electrochemical series and the half-reaction electrode potentials are
therefore consulted6,7 to establish a list of reasonable candidates for the
cation of the metallic salt which disassociates in solution to permit
electrolysis. The list of candidate cations, with the condition of hydroxide
formation included, is now reduced to:
Ba+2, Sr+2, Rb+ and Cs+ with oxidation potentials of 2.91, 2.90, 2.98 and 3.03
It is noticed that this group is now closely confined within the periodic table,
and that chemical properties of these elements are in many ways shared. It is
also instructive to note the remarkable similiarity in the work functions of
these elements, which is an expression of the ionization capabililty of the
9. Each of these cations must form a soluble hydroxide. Solubility tables8
indicate that these conditions are satisified by each of the hydroxide forms:
Ba(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, RbOH and CsOH.
10. Practical levels of worldwide production of the elements are helpful to
consider9. Barium and strontium both are produced at high tonnage levels
worldwide, rubidium and cesium are inconsequential in production. Barium
production is stated at 6 million tons per year, strontium at 137,000 tons,
cesium at 20 tons and rubidium in such low levels as to not be available. Common
hydroxide forms are also to be considered in this analysis. This reduces the
candidate cation list to strontium and barium, whereupon additional conditions
of qualitative testing are to be imposed.
11. The material in solution must produce a cation and a hydroxide ion in
solution. Precipitate tests are conducted with carbonate, oxalate and sulfate
compounds for the existence of barium or strontium ions, using a combination of
the unknown with sodium carbonate, sodium oxalate and copper sulfate10. The
material in question forms a precipitate under all three conditions. The
consideration of barium hydroxide and strontium hydroxide continues to be valid
under under these results.
12. The precipitate formed with the use of copper sulfate is hypothesized to be
barium sulfate. The precipitate formed under electrolysis is also hypothesized
to be a barium sulphate compound. Solubility tests are necessary to test this
hypothesis. The precipitate and the compound formed from electrolysis pass the
solubility tests when subjected to water, hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and
ethanol. The identification of barium sulphate remains valid. The sulfate
precipitate fails the solubility test for strontium sulfate, as strontium
sulfate is soluble in hydrochloric acid. The sulphate compound that has been
formed by both displacement and electrolysis is highly insoluble, and is
insoluble in hydrochloric acid.
13. The solubility test for barium carbonate should also be verified. The
carbonate precipitate is soluble in hydrochloric acid and passes this test. The
identification of barium compounds in the analysis remains valid. No solubility
tests for barium oxalate are specified11.
14. The next test which is to be conducted is the flame test. Barium burns
yellow-green under the flame test12,13. A sample of the electrolysis compound,
identified as barium sulphate, is subjected to a flame test using a nichrome
wire. The compound is observed to burn with a yellow-green color. The
identification of barium compounds within the analysis is valid under all
conditions and circumstances examined.
15. The final test is a viewing of the spectrum of the flame test with a
calibrated spectroscope and an optical spectroscope. Dominant green and yellow
emission spectral lines are measured at approximately 515 (wider line, boundary
line) and 587 nanometers (narrow and distinct), they are confirmed with the
optical spectroscope, and they correspond to the green and yellow wavelengths
specified for the flame test. The identification of barium compounds within the
analysis remains valid under all conditions and examined and tests conducted.
The most reasonable hypothesis at this point is that the original compound is a
barium oxide form. This compound readily combines with water to form barium
hydroxide. The ionizing plate filter and the fiber filter both appear to be
successful at accumulating the solid form of this metallic salt. Solubility, pH,
precipitation, chromatography, electrode, electrolysis, flame and spectroscopy
tests all support the conclusion within this report that significant levels of
barium compounds have been verified to exist and are now to be examined in the
atmospheric sampling process. This report corroborates, at an elevated level,
the previous research that is available on this site.
This page is subject to revision.
1. Clifford E Carnicom, Electrolysis and Barium,
(http://www.carnicom.com/precip1.htm), May 27, 2002
2. Carnicom, Sub-Micron Particulates Isolated,
(http://www.carnicom.com/micro3.htm), Apr 26, 2004
3. Frank Eshelman, Ph.D., MicroChem Manual (Frank Eschelman,
www.microchemkits.com, 2003), 1-4, 76.
4. Gordon J. Coleman, The Addison-Wesley Science Handbook (Addison-Wesley,
5. Andrew Hunt, A-Z Chemistry, (McGraw-Hill, 2003), 125.
6. David R. Lide, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, (CRC Press, 2001), 8-21
7. Fred C. Hess, Chemistry Made Simple, (Doubleday, 1984), 89, 91.
8. Lide, 4-37 to 4-96.
9. John Emsley, The Elements, (Clarendon Press, 1998), 30-31, 46-47, 176-177,
10. University of Nebraska-Lincoln, The Identification of Ions,
11. Lide, 4-44.
12. Hunt, 152-153.
13. Infoplease Encyclopedia, Flame Test,
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